Aktuelle Publikationen (Politik- und Verwaltungswissenschaft)
(2022): Digitalization, automation, and the welfare state : What do we (not yet) know? BUSEMEYER, Marius R., ed., Achim KEMMERLING, ed., Paul MARX, ed., Kees VAN KERSBERGEN, ed.. Digitalization and the Welfare State. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2022, pp. 21-39. ISBN 978-0-19-284836-9. Available under: doi: 10.1093/oso/9780192848369.003.0002
(2022): Delegation and stewardship in international organizations Journal of European Public Policy. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. 2022, 29(4), pp. 568-588. ISSN 1350-1763. eISSN 1466-4429. Available under: doi: 10.1080/13501763.2021.1883721
International organizations (IOs) are driven by political-administrative interactions between member states and IO administrations. To model these interactions and understand their outcomes, scholars have predominantly, and almost exclusively, relied on agency theory. Yet, as this paper argues, delegation can also take a form of stewardship, where goal conflict and information asymmetries are low. In stewardship relationships, member states trust the IO administration, which enables softer, more informal exercise of control. Both agency and stewardship relationships are illustrated in a comparative case study of FAO and WFP. As interview data and document analysis show, while FAO exhibits agency, WFP provides an example for stewardship. The findings imply that conventional Principal-Agent assumptions should not be taken as given. Not all IO administrations are self-serving agents. The findings also provide implications on IO control and performance and call for scholarship to redirect its focus on de facto rather than de jure IO characteristics.
(2022): Preventing Violence by Teachers in Primary Schools : Study Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial in Haiti Frontiers in Public Health. Frontiers Research Foundation. 2022, 9, 797267. eISSN 2296-2565. Available under: doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.797267
Preventing Violence by Teachers in Primary Schools : Study Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial in Haiti
Context: Although teacher violence at schools is a serious problem in Haiti, there is a lack of systematic evidence on the effectiveness of school-based interventions in reducing teacher violence in this low-income country.
Objective: To test the effectiveness of the preventative intervention Interaction Competencies with Children for Teachers (ICC-T) aiming to reduce teachers' use of violent disciplinary strategies and to improve their interaction competences with children in the Haitian context.
Design, Setting, Participants: The study is designed as a two-arm matched cluster randomized controlled trial. The sample consists of 468 teachers and 1,008 children from 36 (community and public) primary schools around Cap-Haïtien (Département du Nord) in Haiti. Data will be collected in three phases, before the intervention, and 6 and 18 months after.
Intervention: In the group of intervention schools, ICC-T will be delivered as a 5-day training workshop. Workshop sessions are divided into five modules: 1) improving teacher-student interactions, 2) maltreatment prevention, 3) effective discipline strategies, 4) identifying and supporting burdened students, and 5) implementation in everyday school life.
Main Outcome Measure: The main outcome measure is teacher violence assessed in two ways: (i) teachers' self-reported use of violence, and (ii) children's self-reported experiences of violence by teachers.
Conclusions: Prior evaluations of ICC-T had been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa with promising results. This study will test for the first time the effectiveness of this intervention outside the context of sub-Saharan Africa.
(2022): Here, there, everywhere : the gender gap at European Union Politics EUROPP – European Politics and Policy
The gender gap pervades almost all aspects of the academic world. Drawing on a recent co-authored study, Julia Bettecken and Gerald Schneider show the imbalance is also present at the journal European Union Politics (EUP). The gap at EUP manifests itself not only in the underrepresentation of females as editors, authors, or reviewers, but also in their correspondence with the editorial office.
(2022): Evidenzbasierte Transformation zu einer mobilen Arbeitswelt : Eine Fallstudie an der LBS Landesbausparkasse Südwest Zeitschrift Führung + Organisation. Schäffer-Poeschel Verlag. 2022(6), pp. 391-394. ISSN 0722-7485
(2022): A systemic perspective on crisis management and resilience in Germany Der Moderne Staat (dms). Verlag Barbara Budrich. 2022, 15(1), pp. 3-19. ISSN 1865-7192. eISSN 2196-1395. Available under: doi: 10.3224/dms.v15i1.11
In the past decades, Germany was hit – in equal measure to other countries in Europe and beyond – by multiple transboundary and societal crises. We take stock of the ability of the German state to cope with the ensuing complexity in managing these exceptional situations. Conceptually, we apply a systemic perspective that asks about the resilience of the German state in the subsystems of policymaking in crises, implementation of administrative crisis management, as well as societal responses to crises. The paper draws on findings from a range of empirical studies assembled in this special issue, that focus either on the so-called refugee crisis of 2015/16 or the Covid-19 pandemic since 2020. Strikingly, the overall impression emerging from this research is generally favorable of the ability of the German politico-administrative system to master challenging crises – its resilience. But there are also areas for improvement.
(2022): Vicious Cycles : Candidate Selection, Vertical Accountability, and MPs' Performance in Sierra Leone Africa Today. Indiana University Press. 2022, 68(3), pp. 109-130. ISSN 0001-9887. eISSN 1527-1978. Available under: doi: 10.2979/africatoday.68.3.06
Sierra Leone is a successful case of postconflict democratization, but citizens' trust in parliament is low. Using qualitative and quantitative data, this article examines the relationship between MPs and their constituencies. Given the fierceness of the competition at the level of party primaries, aspiring MPs make promises they cannot keep. Confronted with unrealistic expectations, they reduce their presence in the constituency to a minimum. As a result, dissatisfaction increases, and disappointing MPs are voted out of office. The high turnover rate weakens the institutional memory and law-making capacities of parliament, thus creating even more disillusionment. In the long run, the continuation of this cycle may break the links between voters and political representatives.
(2022): How Women Shape Negativity in Parliamentary Speeches : A Sentiment Analysis of Debates in the Austrian Parliament Parliamentary Affairs. Oxford University Press (OUP). 2022, 75(4), pp. 867-886. ISSN 0031-2290. eISSN 1460-2482. Available under: doi: 10.1093/pa/gsab045
How Women Shape Negativity in Parliamentary Speeches : A Sentiment Analysis of Debates in the Austrian Parliament
Though negativity in political debates influences citizens’ attitudes towards legislative institutions, research on how Members of Parliaments (MPs) use negative language remains scant. This study shows how the gender of speakers and the context of debates influence the level of negativity in parliamentary speeches. We argue that female MPs use less negative language than male colleagues due to gender differences in socialisation and stereotypical expectations. Applying sentiment analysis with word embeddings to 20 years of plenary speeches in the Austrian parliament, we find that speeches by women MPs are less negative on average compared to those of their male colleagues. A more balanced gender distribution within a party group decreases differences in tone by lowering the negativity of male speakers. A growing share of women in parliament can thus change the tone of debates, which might enhance the legitimacy of political institutions and the quality of democracy.
(2022): Post-Cold War sanctioning by the EU, the UN, and the US : Introducing the EUSANCT Dataset Conflict Management and Peace Science. Sage Publications. 2022, 39(1), pp. 97-114. ISSN 0738-8942. eISSN 2577-9141. Available under: doi: 10.1177/0738894220948729
The European Union, the United Nations, and the United States frequently use economic sanctions. This article introduces the EUSANCT Dataset—which amends, merges, and updates some of the most widely used sanctions databases—to trace the evolution of sanctions after the Cold War. The dataset contains case-level and dyadic information on 326 threatened and imposed sanctions by the EU, the UN, and the US. We show that the usage and overall success of sanctions have not grown from 1989 to 2015 and that while the US is the most active sanctioner, the EU and the UN appear more successful.
(2022): Nation (Re)Building Through Social Investment? : The Baltic Reform Trajectories GARRITZMANN, Julian L., ed., Silja HÄUSERMANN, ed., Bruno PALIER, ed.. The World Politics of Social Investment. Volume II: The Politics of Varying Social Investment Strategies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2022, pp. 159-184. ISBN 978-0-19-760145-7. Available under: doi: 10.1093/oso/9780197601457.003.0007
The chapter departs from the assumption that today’s social investment (SI) reforms need to be understood against the countries’ policy legacies. It traces the development of SI policies in three Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) from restoration of independence in the 1990s until the late 2010s and explores policy responses to recalibrate the former communist welfare regime into a competitive, skill-focused model. By analyzing SI reform efforts in education, family policy, and the labor market the study demonstrates that the same legacies had different impacts on different social policy fields, inter alia distorting the political discourse and strategies of reforms. This facilitated the skill creation–oriented inclusive distributional profile in education but less intense and more stratified profiles in other policy areas. Although the three countries share many common legacies (such as a Soviet communist past) and contemporary characteristics (such as developing an Anglo-Saxon prototype of the welfare regime), there are important cross-country differences in priorities and agility of SI reforms. The interplay of government composition and nation-building discourse intervened with the politics of reform and resulted ultimately in a more agile reform trajectory in Estonia and Latvia compared to mono-ethnic Lithuania. The chapter concludes that legitimizing radical reforms through nation-building turns out to be a more important factor in reform agility than ideologically favorable coalitions.
What are the social legacies of civil war and how do they differ for men and women? Despite a growing body of research on civil war consequences, the social legacies of conflict remain among the least understood impacts of war. Furthermore, empirical evidence on the distinct effects wartime violence has on men and women is scarce. Quantitative research mostly overlooks the gendered experiences, consequences, and potential benefits of conflict. The aim of my dissertation is to contribute to research on gendered civil war legacies by combining observational and experimental micro-level evidence in different post-conflict settings. The overarching question of my dissertation is addressed in three self-contained essays which test theories of the gendered impacts of war.
Chapter 2 asks whether civil war (dis)empowers women and explores the causal relationship between civil war and women’s labor force participation by leveraging the arbitrary Côte d'Ivoire--Burkina Faso border as setting for a natural experiment. Using a regression discontinuity design, I find that Ivoirian women are 25 percentage points less likely to work outside the home post-war. I investigate three potential mechanisms and argue that the decline in female labor force participation might be explained by a shift towards more traditional gender norms and a reduction in women's bargaining power.
Chapter 3 investigates social (dis)trust in post-war Sri Lanka and analyzes a list experiment to explore the causal relationship between war-related sexual violence and intra- and inter-ethnic group trust. Combining the list experiment with survey data of the Tamil population, I find evidence that war-related sexual violence affects trust decisions of men and women differently. Although both Tamil men and women lose trust in fellow Tamils, female victims are more trusting towards their ethnic out-group. Possible explanations might be that both context of sexual violence and coping strategies differ by gender.
Chapter 4 focuses on social (dis)integration in the Democratic Republic of Congo and explores how forced recruitment shapes male ex-combatants' violent behavior. Based on survey data, I present evidence that former forced recruits commit significantly more violence against their intimate partners and their children compared to voluntary recruits. Using structural equation modeling, I scrutinize the combatant socialization mechanism to show that more intense exposure to violence as part of armed groups and ensuing mental health problems mediate this relationship.
Taken together, my dissertation highlights the importance of systematic micro-level evidence as well as the significance of applying a gender perspective to conflict research. I argue that it is necessary to account for gendered war experiences and consequences, both in theory-building and methodology, as well as in policy-making. This thesis contributes to different literatures on the consequences of armed conflict, the social implications of violence for individuals, and the risks of recurring violence. In chapter 5, I derive several implications and suggest avenues forward for academic research and policy-making.
In this book, Christina Zuber outlines a theory of ideational policy stabilization to explain stable policy choices despite changing incentives. Historical legacies are frequently invoked in popular and academic accounts of the politics of migration, but the mechanisms of transmission are left underspecified. This work contributes to research on migration and to theories of public policy by arguing that the missing link between past events and present choices is ideational: initially a historical constellation of interests leads actors to defend policy ideas that match the historical environment, but over time, ideas can detach themselves from interests and stabilize into societal dispositions (shared values and identities). This occurs if elites build a discursive consensus around a policy idea, and if bureaucrats develop concomitant policy practices. The book's empirical section analyses ideational stabilization in Catalonia (Spain), which takes an inclusive approach to immigration, and in South Tyrol (Italy), where immigration is framed as a threat. The comparison shows that these differences can be explained by the political economy of historical industrialization and internal migration. Catalans were in the driving seat of industrialization, receiving unskilled migrant workers from the rest of Spain to boost their own economy. South Tyroleans, on the other hand, were in the passenger seat, perceiving incoming Italians as colonizers. Over time, socioeconomic conditions changed, and internal migration was replaced with international migration. Yet with historical ideas having stabilized into dispositions, political and administrative elites continued to understand immigration through the now-obsolete perspective of economic opportunity in Catalonia and ethnic competition in South Tyrol.
(2022): Misinformation, believability, and vaccine acceptance over 40 countries : Takeaways from the initial phase of the COVID-19 infodemic PloS ONE. Public Library of Science (PLoS). 2022, 17(2), e0263381. eISSN 1932-6203. Available under: doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0263381
Misinformation, believability, and vaccine acceptance over 40 countries : Takeaways from the initial phase of the COVID-19 infodemic
The COVID-19 pandemic has been damaging to the lives of people all around the world. Accompanied by the pandemic is an infodemic, an abundant and uncontrolled spread of potentially harmful misinformation. The infodemic may severely change the pandemic's course by interfering with public health interventions such as wearing masks, social distancing, and vaccination. In particular, the impact of the infodemic on vaccination is critical because it holds the key to reverting to pre-pandemic normalcy. This paper presents findings from a global survey on the extent of worldwide exposure to the COVID-19 infodemic, assesses different populations' susceptibility to false claims, and analyzes its association with vaccine acceptance. Based on responses gathered from over 18,400 individuals from 40 countries, we find a strong association between perceived believability of COVID-19 misinformation and vaccination hesitancy. Our study shows that only half of the online users exposed to rumors might have seen corresponding fact-checked information. Moreover, depending on the country, between 6% and 37% of individuals considered these rumors believable. A key finding of this research is that poorer regions were more susceptible to encountering and believing COVID-19 misinformation; countries with lower gross domestic product (GDP) per capita showed a substantially higher prevalence of misinformation. We discuss implications of our findings to public campaigns that proactively spread accurate information to countries that are more susceptible to the infodemic. We also defend that fact-checking platforms should prioritize claims that not only have wide exposure but are also perceived to be believable. Our findings give insights into how to successfully handle risk communication during the initial phase of a future pandemic.
(2022): GovTech practices in the EU : A glimpse into the European GovTech ecosystem, its governance, and best practices
GovTech practices in the EU : A glimpse into the European GovTech ecosystem, its governance, and best practices
To support governments in the EU embracing GovTech, this report provides an overview of the diversity of GovTech programmes and shares lessons learnt for setting up government-run GovTech programmes. While the focus of this report is on national GovTech programmes, its findings and conclusions can be applied to other levels of government as well. The term GovTech refers to the use of emerging technologies and digital products and services by government from start-ups and SMEs - instead of relying on large system integrators. There are many - oftentimes competing - definitions of the term GovTech. Despite this diversity, most definitions share the following three common elements: the public sector engages with start-ups and SMEs to procure innovative technology solutions, for the provision of tech-based products and services, in order to innovate and improve public services. This report presents an overview of how existing GovTech programmes are set up in different EU member states and introduces practical case studies. This is followed by a discussion of the rationale of governments’ investment in GovTech and the barriers countries have encountered when engaging with the GovTech ecosystem. The report then distils important lessons learned for setting up government-run GovTech programmes. This report is aimed at anyone wanting to understand how governments are already supporting GovTech, and especially public sector managers who are looking for a starting point for establishing or improving a GovTech programme. It is part of two twin reports on GovTech developed by the JRC with support from the ISA² programme.
(2022): Christmas, Crescents, and Crosses : When is Symbolic Religious Establishment Permissible? American Journal of Political Science. Wiley. 2022, 66(1), pp. 255-266. ISSN 0092-5853. eISSN 1540-5907. Available under: doi: 10.1111/ajps.12645
(2022): Quantitative Methoden in den Internationalen Beziehungen SAUER, Frank, ed., Luba VON HAUFF, ed., Carlo MASALA, ed.. Handbuch Internationale Beziehungen. 3. Auflage. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2022. ISBN 978-3-658-33952-4. Available under: doi: 10.1007/978-3-531-19954-2_25-2
Dieses Kapitel gibt einen Überblick über die Verwendung quantitativer Methoden in den Internationalen Beziehungen. Nach einer kurzen Diskussion der verschiedenen Probleme, die sich in einer quantitativen Untersuchung ergeben können, präsentieren wir im zweiten Teil die mannigfachen Herausforderungen, die beim ersten Schritt jeglicher empirischer Untersuchung – dem Messen der theoretischen Konstrukte – entstehen können. Danach beschreiben wir, wie sich zwei unterschiedliche Datentypen – Experimental- und Beobachtungsdaten – analysieren lassen. In diesem Zusammenhang diskutieren wir ausführlich anhand einiger prominenter Beispiele zentrale Schwierigkeiten bei der Durchführung einer Regressionsanalyse: die Wahl eines passenden Modellierungsverfahrens, die Drittvariablenkontrolle sowie das Problem der Stichprobenverzerrung. Der Aufsatz endet mit einer Schlussbetrachtung und einem Überblick über einige neuere Trends in der Verwendung von quantitativen Methoden in den Internationalen Beziehungen.
(2022): Loud, Noisy, or Quiet Politics? : The Role of Public Opinion, Parties, and Interest Groups in Social Investment Reforms in Western Europe GARRITZMANN, Julian L., ed., Silja HÄUSERMANN, ed., Bruno PALIER, ed.. The World Politics of Social Investment. Volume II: The Politics of Varying Social Investment Strategies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2022, pp. 59-85. ISBN 978-0-19-760145-7. Available under: doi: 10.1093/oso/9780197601457.003.0003
Loud, Noisy, or Quiet Politics? : The Role of Public Opinion, Parties, and Interest Groups in Social Investment Reforms in Western Europe
This chapter develops a theoretical model for the conditions under which parties, public opinion, or interest groups, respectively, affect public policymaking. It argues that the influence of public opinion, parties, and interest groups depends on the salience of the respective topic and on the degree of agreement in public opinion. Public opinion has the greatest influence in a world of “loud” politics when salience is high and the public’s attitudes are coherent. In contrast, when an issue is salient but attitudes are conflicting, public opinion sends a “loud but noisy” signal and party politics have a stronger influence on policymaking. Finally, when an issue is not salient (i.e., “quiet” politics), interest groups are dominant. Empirically, the chapter studies the politics of social investment reform in Western Europe. Based on an original survey of public opinion in eight Western European countries as well as on process tracing analysis of policy reforms, the chapter demonstrates how the influence of public opinion, parties, and interest groups on social investment reforms depends on the salience of the respective topic and on the coherence of public opinion.
(2022): Agil und kollaborativ komplexe Probleme lösen Innovative Verwaltung. Springer. 2022(6), pp. 29-33. ISSN 1618-9876. eISSN 2192-9068
(2022): Linguistic features of public service encounters : How spoken administrative language affects citizen satisfaction Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. Oxford University Press (OUP). ISSN 1053-1858. eISSN 1477-9803. Available under: doi: 10.1093/jopart/muac052
Linguistic features of public service encounters : How spoken administrative language affects citizen satisfaction
Spoken administrative language is a critical element in the relationship between citizens and the state, especially when it comes to face-to-face interactions between officials and citizens during the delivery of public services. But preceding work offers little insights on the verbal features of street-level bureaucracy. Drawing on communication studies, we argue that administrative language differs along both a relational and an informational linguistic component. To test the consequentiality of this theory, we design a factorial survey experiment with a representative sample of 1,402 German citizens. Participants evaluated audio recordings of a hypothetical service encounter where we systematically varied the language used by the official and the service decision, measuring participants’ service satisfaction as the main outcome. Based on regression analysis, we find that relational elements of administrative language improve citizen satisfaction, independent of the service outcome, but that the effect does not hold for the informational component. These findings emphasize the importance of relational communication in citizen-state interactions, which tends to be neglected in public administration theory and practice.